Animal personalities can trip up science, but there’s a solution

Enlarge / Even hermit crabs have individual patterns of behavior — personalities, if you like. When scientists ignore the effects of such differences, they may produce research that’s flawed.NurPhoto via Getty Images

Several years ago, Christian Rutz started to wonder whether he was giving his crows enough credit. Rutz, a biologist at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, and his team were capturing wild New Caledonian crows and challenging them with puzzles made from natural materials before releasing them again. In one test, birds faced a log drilled with holes that contained hidden food, and could get the food

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